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Does the law include a set list of disabilities?
No. There is no set list. Disability is defined for the purposes of the equality legislation as "a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on the ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities."
Some conditions, such as HIV and cancer, are protected from the date of diagnosis.
Progressive conditions and conditions where the symptoms fluctuate over time may also be disabilities for the purposes of the Equality Act 2010. Speak to your union, or take legal advice if you are unsure whether your condition amounts to a disability under the Act.