Who can represent me at a tribunal?

You do not need a qualified lawyer to represent you at a tribunal. Other people such as full-time union officers or advice centre workers can often do just as good a job, if not better. You may also be able to secure representation through an insurance policy (e.g. household, credit card, car or other insurance), if it includes legal expenses insurance as an 'optional add-on'. 

However, you should be wary of the kind of independent advisers who advertise their services, such as in local papers and by other means, who offer to prepare your case and represent you at a tribunal for a fee and/or a cut of your compensation

While some may be competent, you have absolutely no guarantee that they have any expertise. The government is so concerned at just how badly some advisers serve their clients that they have taken steps against them. These are some of the things you should watch out for: 

  • Are they registered under the Compensation Act 2006? (It is a crime for an person who is not authorised by the Financial Services Authority to offer claims management services, or to pretend to be authorised. This includes employment tribunal claims.) You can do a search of the government financial services register to check whether they are registered to provide claims management services. 

  • Are their terms reasonable? They may expect a very large share of any award you win. 

  • What are their qualifications? Some claim that they have qualifications that they do not really have, others give themselves such names as 'legal advisers', which gives you the impression that they have some sort of legal qualification, when in reality this term may mean little. 

  • Make sure they have direct experience of employment tribunal representation. 

The best representation you can have at an employment tribunal may well be that which is provided by a trained trade union representative. He or she is very likely to have considerable experience of how the tribunals work, will understand workplace issues better, and be able to spot workplace-specific errors made by your employer that an outside adviser would probably miss.  

If you are not a member of a union, you may be able to get free legal advice from your local Law Centre, if you live in a larger town or city, or the Free Representation Unit in London. Otherwise, Acas can provide advice (though not representation), as can staff at a Citizens Advice

If you are unable to afford representation and you suffer from mental ill-health that seriously impairs your ability to represent yourself, the employment tribunal is likely to suggest that you apply for representation through the voluntary bar pro bono unit. You will normally need evidence, such as a medical report or evidence of any medical treatment you are undergoing, to show the tribunal that you cannot effectively represent yourself due to your mental health condition. 

Note: This content is provided as general background information and should not be taken as legal advice or financial advice for your particular situation. Make sure to get individual advice on your case from your union, a source on our free help page or an independent financial advisor before taking any action.

What is WorkSmart?

A career coach that works for everyone.


Enjoy bite-sized activities delivered to you every week.

Lightbulb brain

Equip yourself with essential skills to be the best you yet.


Get the guidance you need to stay focused and reach your goals.

Worksmart circle